#### B. Tech. courses offered by Dept. of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering

#### Course Outline

Outline Syllabi of B. Tech. courses offered by Dept. of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering Department

**15B11PH111 Physics-1 (Credit: 4)**

Interference, Diffraction and Polarization of Light, Special Theory of Relativity, Lorentz Transformations and Mass-Energy Equivalence, Laws of Radiation, Atomic Spectra, Angular Momenta, Atoms in Magnetic Field, Wave-Particle Duality, Compton Scattering, Matter Waves, Uncertainty Principle, Schrodinger Equation, Particle in a Box, Potential Barrier Tunneling, Harmonic Oscillator, Laws of Thermodynamics, Carnot’s Engine, Entropy, Clausius-Clapeyron Equation.

**15B11PH112Physics for Biotechnology (Credit: 4)**

Interference, Diffraction and Polarization of light, Modulus of rigidity, Bio-mechanics, Basic ideas of Biomechanics and Allometry, Surface tension, Viscosity and flow of Newtonian fluid in elastic channel, Bio-fluid mechanics, Polar and Non-polar solvents, Atomic spectra, Quantum numbers, Zeeman effect, Principle and working of laser, Ruby Laser, Applications of lasers in biotechnology.

**15B17PH171 Physics Lab-1 (Credit: 1)**

Experiments on Determination of Wavelength of Light by Fresnel’s Biprism, Newton’s Rings and Grating, Dispersive Power of Prism Material, Optical Activity, Planck’s Constant by Photoelectric Effect and Photovoltaic Effect, Resistivity by Carey-Foster’s Bridge, Stefan’s constant, Magnetic Field Variation by Helmholtz Galvanometer. Virtual lab experiments: Newton’s ring, Michelson interferometer, Brewster's law, Franck-Hertz experiment.

**15B11PH211 Physics-2 (Credit: 4)**

Gauss’s Law and applications, Laplace and Poisson’s Equations, Maxwell’s Equations, Electromagnetic Waves, Propagation of Electromagnetic waves in Free Space and Dielectric Media, Classical and Quantum Statistical Distributions, Principle and Working of Different Types of Lasers, Bonding, Crystal Structure, Bragg’s Law and X-ray Diffraction, Band Theory, Conduction in Metals, Semiconductors and Insulators, Hall Effect in Semiconductors.

**15B17PH271 Physics Lab-2 (Credit: 1)**

Experiments on Determination of Optical Fiber Characteristics, Band Gap of Semiconductor using Four Probe and p-n Junction Diode, Charge to Mass Ratio of Electron by Thomson’s Method and Magnetron Valve, Magnetostriction, Magnetoresistance, p-n junction, Hall Effect, Curie Temperature of Ferromagnetic Ceramics. Virtual lab experiments: Thermistor, Zener-diode, B-H curve.

**15B11BT212 Bio-Physical Techniques (Credit: 4)**

Qualitative ideas of Schrodinger wave equation, particle in a box, Harmonic and anharmonic oscillators, Introduction to Molecular Spectroscopy, Quantization of Energy Levels in Molecules, Width and Intensity of Spectral Lines, Types of bonding, Microwave Spectroscopy, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Electronic Spectroscopy of Diatomic and Polyatomic Molecules, Spin Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR and ESR) and Applications, X-Ray Crystallography, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) Mass Spectroscopy, Electron Microscopy (SEM, TEM), STM, AFM and Applications.

__Elective Courses__

**16B1NPH531 Quantum Mechanics for Engineers (Credit: 4)**

Basics of quantum physics, quantum nature of matter, Schrödinger wave equation, wave functions and operators, 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D potential problems, quantum mechanics of H atom, angular momentum and spin, electrons in solids, approximation methods (variational methods, and first order perturbation theory). Specific attention will be given to applications of quantum mechanics in semiconductors, nanotechnology, quantum computation and communications.

**16B1NPH532 Materials Science (Credit: 4)**

Dielectric Polarization, Dielectric Constant, Polarization under Oscillating Field , Dielectric loss, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric effects, Applications of Dielectric Materials, Dia-, Para-, Ferro-, Antiferro- and Ferri-Magnetic materials, and their Applications, Super Conducting Materials, Meissner Effect, Critical field, Type-I and Type-II superconductors, London Equation, BCS Theory, High Temperature Superconductors and their Applications, Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Polymers, Properties and Applications of Ceramics, Optical Properties of metals and Nonmetals, Drude Model, Photonic Band Gap Materials and their Applications, Thermoelectric Effects, Seebeck, Peltier and Thompson Coefficients, Thermoelectric Devices, Figure of Merit.

**16B1NPH533 Laser Technology and Applications (Credit: 4)**

Laser idea and properties; Conditions for producing laser action, population inversion; Pumping processes; optical and electrical pumping, Q switching and Mode locking in lasers; Types of Lasers; Solid state Lasers; Gas lasers and Excimer Laser; Dye (liquid) Laser, Chemical laser (HF), Semiconductor Lasers; Laser applications; Holography, Absorption, Spontaneous and Stimulated emissions, Laser induced fusion; Laser induced uranium isotopes separation, Light wave communications, Use in optical reader (CD player) and writer, Nonlinear optics (SHG, SFG, and self focusing); Lasers in industry, Lasers in medicines and surgery. Lasers in defense, Lasers in sensors

**16B1NPH534 Biomaterials Science (Credit: 4)**

Classification of Materials, Crystal Defects and Phase Changes, Mechanical Properties of Materials, Surface Properties of Materials, Thermal Treatment of Materials, Surface Anodization, Magnetic Materials, Biocompatible Materials, Super-Paramagnetism, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Polymers and Applications of Biopolymers, Processing and Mechanical of Polymers and Ceramics, Science of Nanomaterials.

**16B1NPH535 Nuclear Science and Engineering (Credit: 4)**

Nuclear Constituents and their properties, Nuclear Models, Nuclear Forces, Nuclear decay and Nuclear reactions, Interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, Detection of radiation. Fission and Fusion as energy source, Reactor Physics - Different types of reactors, tracer techniques, activation analysis. Radiation induced effects and their applications: Accelerators: Van de Graff, LINAC, Cyclotrons, Synchrotons, Colliders.

**16B1NPH631 Computational Physics (Credit: 4)**

Introduction to Numerical Techniques, Monte Carlo Methods, The Metropolis algorithm, Variational Methods and Optimization Techniques; Applications of Computer Simulations in Physics: Random Walk and its Applications to Polymers, Percolation and Fractal Phenomena, Aggregation Diffusion Models for growth, Chaos and Non-Linear Systems, Ising Model Simulations of Magnetic Solids and Phase Transitions, Simulations of simple Neural Network Models, Ray tracing algorithms in graded refractive index media, Applications in Electrodynamics.

**16B1NPH632 Solid State Electronic Devices (Credit: 4)**

Bonding forces and energy bands in solids, charge carriers in semiconductors, carries concentrations, Fermi level, optical absorption, Carrier lifetime and diffusion of carriers, fabrication of p-n junctions, equilibrium conditions, steady state conditions, reverse bias breakdown, recombination and generation in the transition region, metal semiconductor junctions, Field effect transistor (FET), Metal-insulator-semiconductor FET, MOS FET, photodiodes, solar cell, light emitting diodes, lasers, semiconductor lasers, Negative conductance Microwave devices: IMPATT diode, Gunn diode.

**16B1NPH633 Photovoltaic Techniques (Credit: 4)**

Energy issues, conventional and Renewable energy sources, Solar Energy and Photovoltaics, fundamental of semiconductors, p-n junction diode, solar cell characteristics, Quantum Efficiency, loses in solar cell, solar cell design, design for high I_{sc}, V_{oc}, FF, solar simulators, solar cell technologies: production of Si, Si wafer based and thin film solar cells (Crystalline solar cells, II-VI and III-V compound solar cells (GaAs), CdTe, CuInSe_{2}, Amorphous Si, Thin Film Si), emerging solar cell technologies and concepts (DSC), solar photovoltaic modules, balance of system (BOS), design of photovoltaic system.

**16B1NPH634 Applied Statistical Mechanics (Credit: 4)**

Overview of basic laws of Thermodynamics; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters, Concept of ensembles; Thermodynamic potentials; Introduction to equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems and related problems; Entropy and probability; Distribution functions: Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and their applications to measure properties of diverse systems; Non-equilibrium/Quasi-thermodynamic systems: Liouville's equation, von Neumann equation; Stochastic methods; Applications of ensemble formalism in dynamics of neural networks, ensemble forecasting of weather, propagation of uncertainty over time, regression analysis of gravitational orbits etc., Ising model and its applications, Molecular dynamics, Monte-Carlo simulations and Multiscale modeling for materials properties and engineering applications.

**16B1NPH635 Analytical Techniques for Materials (Credit: 4)**

Structure and Microstructure analysis by X-ray, SEM and TEM; Composition analysis by EDX and WDX; Molecular structure by Fourier transform IR (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy; Electronic structure by Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-ray absorption techniques;; Surface morphology and structure by SPM, thermal analysis by TGA,DTA,DSC.

**16B1NPH636 Medical & Industrial Applications of Nuclear Radiation (Credit: 4)**

Structure of matter, Binding energy and Nuclear stability, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear fusion in stars, Kinetics of radioactive decay and their measurement, Production of radionuclide, Radioactive dating, Radiocarbon clock, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Larmor precision, NMR & ESR Spectroscopy, Chemical shifts, Working of MRI, Dosimetry, Biological effects of radiations, Dosimetry, Tools and radiotherapy, Radiation Doses, Radioisotopes, Nuclear imaging techniques, Medical imaging using b+gcoincidences, SPECT AND PET, Radiation tomography, applications, Nuclear Medicine.

**16B19PH692 Light Emitting Diodes: Basics and Applications (Value Added)**

Introduction to LEDs: Radiative and Non radiative recombination of carriers, I–V characteristics, Electron-blocking layers, Extraction and Power efficiencies, Light escape cone, LED Materials: AlGaInAs & AlGaInN, Organic LEDs; Growth, Fabrication and Characterization Techniques; Applications: Solid state lighting, White LEDs, HB LEDs, Color Mixing and Rendering, LED Drivers, Display Devices, AMOLED, Communication, High Voltage LEDs.

**17B1NPH731 Introduction to Quantum Information Processing (Credit: 3)**

Introduction to Physical aspects of Information and Classical Information Theory, Quantum computations and communications, Quantum mechanics and Algebraic techniques required for Quantum information. Quantum algorithms - Grover’s algorithm, Shor’s algorithm, Quantum Circuits, Protocols of Quantum Key Distribution and Other Aspects of Quantum Communication, Quantum Error Correction Schemes.

**17B1NPH732 Nanoscience and Technology (Credit: 3)**

Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanomaterials, Dimensionality Effects, Properties of Metallic, Semiconducting and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Carbon as Special Nanomaterial, Synthesis of Nanomaterials, Nucleation and Growth of thin films, Characterization and Applications of Nanomaterials.

**16B1NPH732 Green Energy and Climate Modelling (Credit: 3)**

Introduction to world production /reserve of conventional energy sources, environmental effects and limitation of congenital energy sources, Physics behind greenhouse effect, layer model depending on energy flux and temperature at earth surface, radiation effect on Greenhouse gases. Renewal and alternative energy sources, like solar, wind, ocean bio gas and fusion energy. Nature and availability of radiation, estimation of solar energy radiation. Tidal energy, and its characteristics, important component of tidal energy plant, wave energy, design parameters of wave energy plant, introduction to wind energy, Nature, power, forces, conversion and estimation. Introduction to bio mass energy, generation, conversion and utilization of biogas plants, Basics of DT fusion, Magnetic confinement fusion, laser inertial fusion.

**18B12PH811 Photonics and Applications (Credit: 3)**

Basic processes of laser, Einstein’s coefficients, Semiconductor lasers, Modes of laser cavity, Q-switching and mode locking, Numerical aperture of optical fiber, Step index and graded index fibers, TE and TM modes of step index planar waveguide, Losses in optical fiber, Basic principle of optoelectronic detection, p-n and p-i-n photodiodes, Basic understanding of optical electronics and nonlinear optics, Principle of holography, Applications of photons in memory devices and voice communication.

**18B12PH812 Astrophysics (Credit: 3)**

Introduction to Astrophysics, Stellar astrophysics, Classification and Nomenclature of stars, Basic equations of Stellar Structure, Relevance of HR Diagram, Life cycle of stars, Galactic Astrophysics, Shape and Size of Milky way, Interstellar Matter, Active Galaxies, Cluster of Galaxies, Large-Scale Distribution of Galaxies, Models of Universe, Big Bang, Cosmological Constants, Dark Matter and Energy, Introduction of Astrobiology.

**18B12PH813 Biophysics (Credit: 3)**

Physical Processes in Living Organisms; DNA Computing, Hamiltonian Path Problem, Satisfiability Problem, DNA Logic Gates, Quantum Dots, Self Assembly as Computing Devices, Basic Nuclear Processes, Energy Transfer Processes, Radiation Effects, Radio Tracer Techniques, Radiation Damage to DNA, Radiation Detection and Protection, Radiation shielding, Bio-Devices Organic Semiconductor, Organic Solar Cell, OLED, AMOLED, Biosensors - Working, Design and Applications, Environmental Biophysics-Ozone umbrella, Green house effect.

**18B12PH814 Plasma Physics (Credit: 3)**

Introduction to plasmas, Debye shielding, plasma parameters, dielectric constant of plasma and collisions; Production of Plasmas in the laboratory drifts of charged particles under the effect of different combinations of electric and magnetic fields and Mirror Machine; Plasma oscillations, space charge waves of warm plasma, ion-acoustic waves and electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma, Alfven waves; Decay of Plasma by diffusion, diffusion across a magnetic field, single fluid MHD equations, diffusion in fully ionized plasmas, Bohm diffusion and neo classical diffusion; Classification of plasma instabilities, two stream instability and gravitational instability or Rayleigh Taylor instability. Ponderomotive force and parametric instabilities in plasmas; Non linear Landau damping, magnetic & inertial confinement schemes, ITER and TOKAMAK.

**15B1NPH831 Integrated Optics and Applications (Credit: 3)**

Introduction, Matrix optics; Matrices of some simple optical circuits, Fourier Optics; Fourier series and Transforms, Optical sources; Lasers and LEDs, Optical waveguides; Fibers, couplers, sensors, micro and nano lithography, Etching, Metallization, and Photonic integrated circuits; NRI (negative refractive index) Optics, perfect lens, near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and Applications.

#### M. Tech. program in Materials Science and Engineering

M. Tech. courses offered by Physics and Materials Science and Engineering Department

**18M11PH111 Processing of Engineering Materials (Credit: 3)**

Processing of metals, Powder processing, Crystal growth, Precipitation hardening, Microstructure and property control, Polymers, Classification and processing techniques, Casting, Extrusion, Blow molding, Thermoforming, Injection molding, Compression molding etc, Fiber-reinforced polymer processing, Fiber spinning, Processing of ceramic and glasses, Glass transition temperature, Shaping and sintering of ceramics, Defects, Packing density, Porosity, Phase analysis, Composites and processing of composites.

**18M11PH112 Nanoscience and Engineering (Credit: 3)**

Synthesis of nanomaterials by Physical, Chemical and Biological methods, Properties of Nanomaterials: Size/ quantum confinement and density of states of low dimensional structures, size-dependent oscillator strength, surface states and effects in nanomaterials, Optical properties of bulk & low dimensional materials, Structural, electronic, optical and magnetic properties of nanostructured materials employing various microscopic and spectroscopic tools, GA-XRD, BBG (Bragg-Brentano Geometry), φ and W scan. Application of nanostructured materials in optoelectronic and electronic devices for display, storage, sensing and NEMS, Bio-nanotechnology, Medical, Textile, Ceramic industries etc.

**18M15PH111 MSE Laboratory-1 (Credit: 3)**

Experiments on Determination of Magnetostriction, Dielectric Properties of Ferroelectric and Para electric Materials, Magnetoresistance, Hall Effect, Band Gap, Carrier Density, Mobility of Semiconductor Materials, Structural Characteristics of Materials by XRD & FTIR Spectroscopy, Electrical Characteristics of Cryastalline/ Amorphous Bulk and Nano Materials by UV-Visible Spectroscopy.

**18M11PH113 Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Materials (Credit: 3)**

Ideal solution and its entropy of formation and chemical potential, Interstitials solid solutions, Ordered and intermediate phases, Binary phase diagram, Binary solutions with unlimited solubility, Phase rule, Lever rule, Microstructural development in isomorphous alloys, Iron-Carbon phase diagram, Temperature dependence of solubility and TTT phase diagrams, Kinetics of phase transformation, Arrhenius rate equation, Defects and Dislocations, Diffusion in ideal solutions, Steady state diffusion, Non steady state diffusion, Substitutional diffusion, Interstitial and grain boundary diffusions.

**18M11PH114 Structure and Characterization of Materials (Credit: 3)**

Point group and Space group symmetry in 2D and 3D structures, Stereographic projections, Reciprocal lattice, Structure factor, Description of the physical properties of crystals with relationship to Crystallography and symmetry. Electrical and Magnetic characterization techniques, Thermal characterization techniques, Differential thermal analysis, Differential scanning calorimetry, Thermal gravimetric analysis, Spectroscopic techniques, UV absorption, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Neutron diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, Lattice imaging, Scanning electron microscopy, Quantitative phase estimation, Scanning probe microscopy, AFM, STM and MFM.

**18M15PH112 MSE Laboratory-2 (Credit: 3)**

Synthesis of Polymer Thin Films, Ceramic Materials, Nano materials; Preparation of Thin Film using Vacuum Coating Unit; Frequency and Temperature Dependent Dielectric Properties using Impedance Spectroscopy; Characteristics of Optical Fibers, Piezoelectric Effect; Microstructure of Materials by Metallurgical Optical Microscope.

__Elective Courses__

__Elective Courses__

**Semiconductor Devices and IC Technology (Credit: 3)**

Basic equations for semiconductor device operation, excess carriers in semiconductor, ambipolar transport and applications. quasi-fermi energy levels, p-n Junction, characteristics of p-n junction, non-uniformly doped junctions, junction breakdown, charge storage behavior, Tunnel diode, Schottky Barrier Diode, Metal-semiconductor contacts, Hetero-junctions, Bipolar transistor, Non-ideal Effects, Equivalent Circuit Models, MOSFET Structure, Current-Voltage Relationship Concepts, Frequency Limitations, CMOS Technology. Device Processing Technology (Semiconductor processing, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, Contacts, Metallization etc.).

**Properties of Engineering Materials (Credit: 3)**

Thermoelectric effect, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric devices, Superconductors, Meissner effect, BCS theory, Josephson effect, Magnetic flux quantization, Applications of high Tc superconductors in electrical power and transportation, Dielectric properties, Polarization mechanism and their frequency dependence, Dielectric loss, Piezoelectric materials and devices, Magnetic properties of materials, Ferrites, Garnets, Hard and soft magnetic materials, Magnetic storage, Optical properties of materials.

**Optoelectronic Materials and Devices (Credit: 3)**

Review of different types of Lasers, Q-switching and mode locking in lasers, Fiber numerical aperture, Attenuation and dispersion, Mode cutoff and mode field diameter, EDFA, OTDR and Optical fiber sensors, Wave propagation in anisotropic media, Electro-optic effect, Acousto-optic effect and Magneto-optic effect, SHG, Sum and difference frequency generation, Parametric amplification, Nonlinear effects in optical fibers, SPM, XPM and FWM, Solitons, Electro-optical, Acousto-optical and Magneto-optical devices, Holography and its applications.

**Thin Film Technology and Applications (Credit: 3)**

Vacuum Science and Technology, Physical Vapor deposition techniques– Evaporation based techniques; Sputtering and Plasma based techniques, Hybrid and modified PVD techniques. Chemical vapor deposition techniques – Thermal CVD, Laser and Plasma enhanced CVD techniques, Chemical Techniques – Spray pyrolysis, sol-gel, Electro-deposition, LB Techniques, Epitaxial Film Growth, Buffer layer barrier formation, Superlattices and other applications.

**Nanotechnology (Credit: 3)**

Nanolithographic techniques, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and other techniques for mass production of nanopowders, Study of size, shape, distribution and morphology of low dimensional structures, Force-distance (f-d), Current-voltagE (I-V) and charge spectroscopy. Nanoindentation and Nanomaniplulation techniques for futuristic applications, Carbon Nanomaterials and applications in energy and green technologies**, **Nanoelectronics: Organic Semiconductors and Electronics.

**Advanced Materials and Applications (Credit: 3)**

Introduction to advance materials, Ferro electricity, Domain concept in bulk and thin films, Ferroelectric materials for FERAM devices, Barrier layer and multilayer dielectrics for capacitor technology, Compositional tuning of transition temperature and its applications, High–K dielectrics for electronics, Piezoelectricity, Electro-mechanical coupling coefficients and piezoelectric devices, Sensors and actuators. Electro-optic ceramics (PLZT), Processing and fabrication and aging.

**Engineering Ceramics and Composites (Credit: 3)**

Traditional ceramics, Bonding and composite structure of ceramics, Glass and Glass ceramics, bio ceramics and electronic ceramics, Processing of ceramics, Melting points, Thermal expansion, Elastic and plastic deformation, Strength of ceramics, toughening mechanisms, Wear and Tear behavior, Response to thermal shock. fracture mechanics, Defects in ceramics, Creep, slow crack growth and fatigue in ceramics, Life time predictions, High Temperature performance of Calcia, magnesia and alumina based ceramics for thermal insulation, Ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal composite, Zirconia and zirconia based ceramics, SiN and SiC ceramics.

**Modelling and Simulation of Materials (Credit: 3)**

Meaning of modeling and simulation of a physical system, Introduction to Mathematica and Solution of eigen value problems using Matlab and Mathematica, Basic ideas of approximation techniques, The variational method, the perturbation method and the JWKB method, Numerical Integration of Schrodinger equation, Central field approximation, Introduction to Gaussian 03 and Gaussview, The Harttree-Fock Self-Consistent Filed Method, Semiempherical, AM1 Hamiltonian, Density functional theory, Simulation using Gaussian, Monte-Carlo simulation, Multiscale modeling.

**Photovoltaic Techniques and Processes (Credit: 3)**

Solar Energy and Photovoltaics, Review of semiconductors and p-n junction propeties, Energy issues, Conventional energy sources, Introduction to solar cells, The ideal solar cell, Solar Cell characteristics, Photovoltaic materials, Crystalline solar cells, Thin Film Solar Cells, Multi-junction solar cells, Organic solar cells, Fabrication and characterization of solar cells, PV systems, Balance of system, Photovoltaic Cells, Estimating PV system size and cost, Photovoltaic safety.

**Note: The list of electives may be expanded as per need.**